Zamak Mercator 2021 calendar


Ladies and gentlemen,

The passing year 2020 has gone down in history as the year of the emergence of the infectious covid 19 disease, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. What will the new year 2021 bring? Will the new reality of 2021 bring back international travels, great exploratory expeditions, visiting interesting places, sharing memories and photos from these trips with loved ones at the table?

In the current situation, we do not know the answers to the questions posed, but there is probably no better place than the Jagiellonian Library in Krakow to look for inspiration or reference in its impressive collection, hiding works of people from different eras.
We decided that the year 2021 on the pages of the Zamak Mercator calendar should remind us of the importance of traveling, especially intercontinental, and of how many discoveries and inventions we owe to them. Often individuals, and as it later turned out, the greats of this world, with their courage, the risk of losing property, and even life, but also the desire to leave posterity not only memories, but also specific achievements for the development of science, made many discoveries and created unique works.
Our 2021 calendar is dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the journey and expedition of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese sailor in the Spanish service. Selected maps from the collections of the Jagiellonian Library reflect the titles of albums, atlases and maps of this explorer and sea traveler, one of the greatest figures in the history of shipping and geographical discoveries, respectively.
The presented maps come from the collections of Georg Braun, Franz Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum, Cologne 1572-1594, as well as various cards from the Academie des Sciences et des Arts, Contenant les Vies, & les Eloges Historiques des Hommes Illustres, par Isaac Bullart, Paris 1682, Ortelius Abraham, Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, Editio ultima, Antverpiae 1603 and 1624, Ostindien diesseits und jenseits des Ganges, Wien, 1806, Die Erde in zwei Halbkugeln, Prag, 1807, Charte von Ostindien Jenseits des Ganges, Prag, 1812, Mappe Mondeo u description de Globe Terrestre, Paris, 1774, Westliche Halb Kugel, Brün, 1786, Die Beiden Halbkugeln Samt den neuesten Entdeckungen, Wien, [after 1780].
Magellan's expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe in 1521 and the first to cross the strait (Strait of Magellan) in South America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific. The expedition members were also the first Europeans to notice that:

• "Camel without hump", it is probably a lama, Andean guanaco, vicuna or alpaca,
• a black "goose" is an animal that had to be peeled, not nibbled - probably a penguin,
• the size of the Earth turned out to be many times larger than any contemporary scientific estimates - the "Victoria" road was 69 thousand kilometers.

However, greater than the confirmation of the sphericality, and thus the unimaginable size of our planet at the time, the surprise for the Magellan crew was the failure to count one day. It was customary to keep precise records of time and place measurements all the time during the journey. Magellan initially took several dozen 30-minute hourglasses. During their return around Africa, the crew was forced to stop in Cape Verde. Ibid., On Wednesday, July 9, 1521, the crew learned that it was Thursday (the next calendar day). The crew could have committed the fatal sin of not fasting on Fridays or Mass on Sundays, etc. The issue only cleared up after returning to Seville. After the trip was over, it turned out that they "lost" one day. Error analysis (when circling the Earth when crossing each degree of longitude, the sun rises 4 minutes earlier - or later depending on the direction of travel - which at 360 ° gives a difference of 1,440 minutes, i.e. one day) contributed to the future date line .

We are convinced that the calendar for 2021, in addition to the calendar, will also be a source of reflection for you about what may become the most important for every person in a given period and time.

With wishes for all the best in the New Year 2021, we remain:

Bogusław Kiszka
Vice President

Agnieszka Socha Żyznowska
Member of the Board

Piotr Żyznowski
Chairman of the Supervisory Board

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